Water Hammer in Hydraulics and Wave Surges in Electricity
Book spine has some clear tape. Contains a library pocket. Pages are in great condition. Several fold out pages.
Hydraulic shock (colloquial: water hammer; fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid, usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas, in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly; a momentum change. This phenomenon commonly occurs when a valve closes suddenly at an end of a pipeline system, and a pressure wave propagates in the pipe. This pressure wave can cause major problems, from noise and vibration to pipe rupture or collapse. It is possible to reduce the effects of the water hammer pulses with accumulators, expansion tanks, surge tanks, blowoff valves, and other features. The effects can be avoided by ensuring that no valves will close too quickly with significant flow, but there are many situations that can cause the effect. Rough calculations can be made either using the Zhukovsky (Joukowsky) equation or more accurate ones using the method of characteristics.