The history of science is the study of the development of science, including both the natural and social sciences (the history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship ). Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real-world phenomena. Historiography of science, in contrast, studies the methods employed by historians of science.
The English word scientist is relatively recent, first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Before that, investigators of nature called themselves" natural philosophers". While observations of the natural world have been described since classical antiquity (for example, by Thales and Aristotle ), and the scientific method has been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon), modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.
From the 18th through the late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented as a progressive accumulation of knowledge, in which true theories replaced false beliefs. More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in terms of competing paradigms or conceptual systems within a wider matrix of intellectual, cultural, economic and political trends. These interpretations, however, have met with opposition for they also portray the history of science as an incoherent system of incommensurable paradigms, not leading to any actual scientific progress but only to the illusion that it has occurred.
SCIENCE IN JAPAN
Japan is one of the leading nations in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery, and medical research with the world's third largest budget for research and development at $130 billion USD, and over 677,731 researchers. Japan has received the most science Nobel prizes in Asia.
JAXA, The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is one of the most notable space planetary and aviation research groups on the planet. A notable achievement is "Kibo" The Japanese Experimental Module, the largest single module of the International Space Station. It features an exposed "terrace" and robotic arm for conducting experiments in the vacuum of space. JAXA patch available here.
Japan develops such a large share of the world's electronics that it is estimated that 16% of the world's gold and 22% of the world's silver is contained in electronic technology in Japan.
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